Bihar (; Hindi pronunciation: [bɪˈɦaːr] (listen)) is a state in eastern India It is the third-largest state by population and twelfth-largest by territory, with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi) It is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, and with Jharkhand to the south The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges, which flows from west to east Three main cultural regions converge in the state: Magadh, Mithila, and Bhojpur.
Bihar is also the world's third-most populous subnational entity
On 15 November 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand Only 113% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, which is the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh Additionally, almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state.
The official languages are Hindi and Urdu, although other languages are common, including Maithili, Magahi, Bhojpuri and other Bihari languages
In ancient and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning, and culture From Magadha arose India's first empire, the Maurya empire, as well as one of the world's most widely adhered-to religions: Buddhism Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule Another region of Bihar is Mithila which was an early centre of learning and the centre of the Videha kingdom.
Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social and economic development Many economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the policies of the central government, such as the freight equalisation policy, its apathy towards Bihar, lack of Bihari sub-nationalism, and the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company The state government has, however, made significant strides in developing the state Improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure, better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, and a reduction in crime and corruption