Madhya Pradesh (MP; , Hindi: [ˈmədʱjə pɾəˈdeːʃ] (listen); meaning Central Province) is a state in central India Its capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Gwalior, Rewa, and Ujjain being the other major cities Madhya Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 75 million residents It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwestThe area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain (also known as Avantika) arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE.
Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India The Maratha empire dominated the majority of the 18th century After the Anglo Maratha Wars 19th century, the region was divided into several princely states under the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and northeastern portion of today's Maharashtra In 1956, this state was reorganised and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region was removed and merged with the Bombay State.
This state was the largest in India by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh region was designated a separate state
The economy of Madhya Pradesh is the tenth-largest state economy in India with ₹809 lakh crore (US$110 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹90,000 (US$1,300) Madhya Pradesh ranks 32nd among Indian states in human development index Rich in mineral resources, Madhya Pradesh has the largest reserves of diamond and copper in India.
More than 30% of its area is under forest cover Its tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in 2010–11 In recent years, the state's GDP growth has been above the national average